TED Theater, Soho, New York

Tuesday, September 24, 2019
New York, NY

The Event

As part of Global Goals Week, the Skoll Foundation and the United Nations Foundation are pleased to present We the Future: Accelerating Sustainable Development Solutions on September 21, 2017 at TED Theater in New York.
The Sustainable Development Goals, created in partnership with individuals around the world and adopted by world leaders at the United Nations, present a bold vision for the future: a world without poverty or hunger, in which all people have access to healthcare, education and economic opportunity, and where thriving ecosystems are protected. The 17 goals are integrated and interdependent, spanning economic, social, and environmental imperatives.
Incremental change will not manifest this new world by 2030. Such a shift requires deep, systemic change. As global leaders gather for the 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly in September, this is the moment to come together to share models that are transforming the way we approach the goals and equipping local and global leaders across sectors to accelerate achievement of the SDGs.

Together with innovators from around the globe, we will showcase and discuss bold models of systemic change that have been proven and applied on a local, regional, and global scale. A curated audience of social entrepreneurs, corporate pioneers, government innovators, artistic geniuses, and others will explore how we can learn from, strengthen, and scale the approaches that are working to create a world of sustainable peace and prosperity.

Meet the


Click on photo to read each speaker bio.



Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations



Captain of Moonshots, X



West Coast Correspondent, Devex



Head Curator, TED


Aung Din

Co-founder of Proximity Designs



Regional Executive Director, Camfed West Africa



Musician, Actor, Author, Campaigner



Member of The Elders, Former President of Mexico



Co-Founder and CEO, Align17



CEO, Global Witness

Governor Jerry


State of California

Her Majesty Queen Rania

Al Abdullah




Co-founder and CEO, Team Rubicon



Senior Director for Advocacy and Communications, Global Health Corps



CEO, Medic Mobile



Executive Chair of the Board, Kiva

Kate Lloyd


Producer, Shamba Chef; Co-Founder, Mediae



President & CEO, UN Foundation



Member of The Elders, former President of Ireland, former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights



Senior Partner, Impact, The Rise Fund

Dr. Mehmood


Vice Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer, PepsiCo



CEO, Social Progress Imperative


Professor Muhammad


Nobel Prize Laureate; Co-Founder, YSB Global Initiatives

Dr. Orode


Country Director, Africare Nigeria



CEO, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves



GRAMMY Nominated Musician & Activist, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves & Rocky Dawuni Foundation



Founder & Executive Director, Educate Girls



President and CEO, Skoll Foundation



President and CEO, Search for Common Ground

Main venue

TED Theater

Soho, New York


330 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10013



Due to limited space, this event is by invitation only.

Save the Date

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mechanism of infection definition

December 1, 2020 by 0

Dengue is transmitted to people by the bite of an Aedes mosquito that is infected with a dengue virus. In addition to the observed maladaptive cytokine release, elevations in more traditional biochemical markers of acute infection, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin (both positive acute phase reactants), as well as continual decreases in lymphocytes and significant elevations in neutrophils, are evident (43, 79). Boston: Beacon Press; 1996. The mode of transmission can include direct contact, droplets, a vector such as a mosquito, a vehicle such as food, or the airborne route. Susceptibility of a host depends on genetic or constitutional factors, specific immunity, and nonspecific factors that affect an individual’s ability to resist infection or to limit pathogenicity. For example, the reservoir of Clostridium botulinum is soil, but the source of most botulism infections is improperly canned food containing C. botulinumspores. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. The degree of herd immunity necessary to prevent or interrupt an outbreak varies by disease. Kidney infection is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that commonly begins in your bladder and moves upstream to one or both of your kidneys. receptor‐selective agonists as candidates for targeting infection, inflammation, and immunity in How common is dengue and where is it found? Some authors have proposed this is due to direct exocrine damage, whereas others suggest it is likely resultant from the gastrointestinal symptoms observed in many COVID-19 patients (32). The pleiotropic hepatic effects of IL-6 could play a particularly important role, inducing expression of serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, and CRP (121). Notably, in a case study series of 5,700 patients from New York City, the most commonly observed comorbidities were hypertension, obesity, and diabetes (112). In total, these processes foster an increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, type II interferon (IFNγ), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), as well as subsequent pulmonary recruitment of immune cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells. This molecular mimicry has been identified as an efficient evolutionary adaptation that some viruses have acquired for exploiting the host cellular machinery. Subsequently, to replicate, the virus must enter host cells either in the mucous membrane itself or in tissues farther afield … Many groups have suggested extrapulmonary involvement in COVID-19 is a direct result of unrestrained inflammation. As of June 15, 2020, the number of global confirmed cases has surpassed 8 million, with over 400,000 reported mortalities. by Casey Leung and Veronika Saykova Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogenic bacterium that causes tuberculosis, commonly known as TB. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recruitment of neutrophils by activated endothelial cells can also synthesize and release multiple cytokines into the circulation, further accelerating this process (93). The evidence behind these proposals are based on previous experience with similar coronaviruses, as well as clinical characteristics, laboratory testing, and postmortem pathological analysis of COVID-19 patients around the world. Inflammation refers to your body’s process of fighting against things that harm it, such as infections, injuries, and toxins, in an attempt to heal itself. Reservoirs include humans, animals, and the environment. Airborne dust includes material that has settled on surfaces and become resuspended by air currents as well as infectious particles blown from the soil by the wind. Because humans were the only reservoir for the smallpox virus, naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated after the last human case was identified and isolated.8, Human reservoirs may or may not show the effects of illness. In addition to prolonged prothrombin time, studies in other cohorts have reported high prevalence of lupus anticoagulant in the circulation (13). 353989). 8, World Journal of Clinical Cases, Vol. This is surprising since lymphopenia has been estimated to be one of the most consistent laboratory abnormalities in adult patients with severe COVID-19 illness (57). Further studies are needed to evaluate the contribution of antibodies to both physiological and pathogenic host response (39, 160). For pathogens to persist over long periods of time they require reservoirswhere they normally reside. A recent, large, multi-center U.S. study of 186 patients who met the broad CDC criteria for MIS-C reported 92% of patients had at least four laboratory results indicating inflammation, including but not limited to elevated CRP and ferritin, lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, as well as elevated D-dimer and fibrinogen (44). Finally, it is important to note that current evidence suggests vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely (55). Premkumar L, Segovia-Chumbez B, Jadi R, Martinez DR, Raut R, Markmann A, Cornaby C, Bartelt L, Weiss S, Park Y, Edwards CE, Weimer E, Scherer EM, Rouphael N, Edupuganti, Weiskopf D, Tse LV, Hou YJ, Margolis D, Sette A, Collins MH, Schmitz J, Baric RS, de Silva AM, The receptor binding domain of the viral spike protein is an immunodominant and highly specific target of antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 patients, Role of the spike glycoprotein of human Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in virus entry and syncytia formation, Qin L, Li X, Shi J, Yu M, Wang K, Tao Y, Zhou Y, Zhou M, Xu S, Wu B, Yang Z, Zhang C, Yue J, Cheng C, Liu X, Xie M, Gendered effects on inflammation reaction and outcome of COVID‐19 patients in Wuhan, Ranucci M, Ballotta A, Di Dedda U, Bayshnikova E, Dei Poli M, Resta M, Falco M, Albano G, Menicanti L, The procoagulant pattern of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, Cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19: a first perspective, Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, Davidson KW, Barnaby DP, Becker LB, Chelico JD, Cohen SL, Cookingham J, Coppa K, Diefenbach MA, Dominello AJ, Duer-Hefele J, Falzon L, Gitlin J, Hajizadeh N, Harvin TG, Hirschwerk DA, Kim EJ, Kozel ZM, Marrast LM, Mogavero JN, Osorio GA, Qiu M, Zanos TP; the Northwell COVID-19 Research Consortium, Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area, Riphagen S, Gomez X, Gonzalez-Martinez C, Wilkinson N, Theocharis P, Hyperinflammatory shock in children during COVID-19 pandemic, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutiérrez-Ocampo E, Villamizar-Peña R, Holguin-Rivera Y, Escalera-Antezana JP, Alvarado-Arnez LE, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Franco-Paredes C, Henao-Martinez AF, Paniz-Mondolfi A, Lagos-Grisales GJ, Ramírez-Vallejo E, Suárez JA, Zambrano LI, Villamil-Gómez WE, Balbin-Ramon GJ, Rabaan AA, Harapan H, Dhama K, Nishiura H, Kataoka H, Ahmad T, Sah R; Latin American Network of Coronavirus Disease 2019-COVID-19 Research (LANCOVID-19). The sources of infection can be endogenous (originating within the body) or exogenous (originating outside the body). Who has an increased risk of being exposed to dengue? In addition to the lungs, ACE2 is also expressed in various other human tissues, such as the small intestine, kidneys, heart, thyroid, testis, and adipose tissue, indicating the virus may directly infect cells of other organ systems when viremia is present (77). The unparalleled pathogenicity and global impact of this pandemic has rapidly engaged the scientific community in urgently needed research. In addition to the coagulopathy observed in COVID-19, severe bleeding in patients is rare in comparison to other RNA-type viruses with hemorrhagic manifestations (30). You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support direct viral infection of cardiomyocytes, although SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been effectively detected in endomyocardial biopsies, mostly involving immune cell infiltrates (40, 149). Proper application of mosquito repellents containing 20% to 30% DEET as the active ingredient on exposed skin and clothing decreases the risk of being bitten by mosquitoes. For example, the activation of complement pathways can lead to initiation of the coagulation cascade (30, 127). First, there is potential for ACE2-mediated liver dysfunction. an infecting with germs of disease, as through the medium of infected insects, air, water, or clothing. In the community, soil may be decontaminated or covered to prevent escape of the agent. A more plausible mechanism behind liver dysfunction in COVID-19 is the observed systemic inflammatory response, as described previously, leading to cytotoxic T-cell-mediated necrosis and MOF. This stage is followed by hemorrhagic manifestations, tendency to bruise easily or other types of skin hemorrhages, bleeding nose or gums, and possibly internal bleeding. In a more recent study, hyperlipasemia was reported in 12.1% of COVID-19 patients (n = 71) but was not associated with worse outcome (91). Similar to other cytopathic viruses, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces cellular death and injury in airway epithelial cells through diverse processes such as pyroptosis (19, 153). In addition to understanding relevant risk factors, there is increasing suspicion of delayed but severe COVID-19 presentation, particularly in children, even after viral clearance (113). Authors: Ana L Flores-Mireles. Wearing of long pants and sleeves and use of insect repellent are recommended to reduce the risk of Lyme disease and West Nile virus infection, which are transmitted by the bite of ticks and mosquitoes, respectively. Additional pathophysiological mechanisms underlying liver injury include drug-induced liver injury as well as hypoxic hepatitis. Some interventions are directed at the mode of transmission. The final link in the chain of infection is a susceptible host. The exact contribution of risk factors to disease progression is still partially undefined. For example, influenza viruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis exit the respiratory tract, schistosomes through urine, cholera vibrios in feces, Sarcoptes scabiei in scabies skin lesions, and enterovirus 70, a cause of hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, in conjunctival secretions. However, other contributing mechanisms have been proposed and are explored below (FIGURE 3). This disproportionate clinical epidemiology may be explained by sex-specific regulation of ACE2, increased incidence of preexisting comorbidities in males (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease), as well as sex-specific differences in viral immune response, as described elsewhere (47, 109). If an infection persists, the number of monocytes increases. In addition, direct viral infection of immune cells such as monocytes and macrophages have been proposed to contribute to dysregulated immune response, as has been observed in SARS (23, 52, 136). 124, with permission from the Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. In addition to cytokine release and immune cell recruitment, another potential mechanism that could contribute to successful viral clearance is antibody neutralization. Although currently available commercial serological assays do not provide information on whether SARS-CoV-2 antibodies confer immune protection, recent reports using specialized laboratory-based neutralization assays have observed a marked correlation between the levels of SARS-CoV-2 spike/receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and the neutralization capacity of patient sera, suggesting its potential beneficial role in clearance (3, 98, 103, 107, 160). COVID-19 and its implications for thrombosis and anticoagulation, Coutard B, Valle C, de Lamballerie X, Canard B, Seidah NG, Decroly E, The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade. Single-cell RNA sequencing suggests that ACE2 is expressed in both the exocrine and islet cells of the pancreas (81). Circulating levels of IL-1β in COVID-19 patients suggests local inflammasome activation with no systemic manifestations (61). Other portals of entry include the skin (hookworm), mucous membranes (syphilis), and blood (hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus). SARS-CoV-2 viral entry has been described in detail elsewhere (138). Although prominent changes in blood coagulation may be a contributing mechanism to COVID-19 mortality, its pathogenesis is estimated to be tightly linked to inflammation and cytokine release. Some cases of cutaneous manifestations in adult COVID-19 patients have been reported, although varying incidence among patients has been noted (68, 111, 120). 8, No. MECHANISMS OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENICITY Definitions 1. For some diseases, the most appropriate intervention may be directed at controlling or eliminating the agent at its source. It is thus hypothesized that the GI manifestations observed in COVID-19 are a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection of intestinal enterocytes and subsequent dysfunction in the ileum and colon (16). Autopsy findings in SARS-CoV infections have shown strong evidence of neuro-invasion, with demonstrated viral presence in the cerebrospinal fluid (6, 95). In general, control measures are usually directed against the segment in the infection chain that is most susceptible to intervention, unless practical issues dictate otherwise. However, as described above, there is potential for SARS-CoV-2 to significantly affect the placenta and thus negatively impact fetal development. Figure 1.20 Complex Life Cycle of Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm). Elevations in troponin and brain natriuretic peptide were also observed in the majority of patients (44). One notorious carrier is Mary Mallon, or Typhoid Mary, who was an asymptomatic chronic carrier of Salmonella Typhi. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. In brief, SARS-CoV-2 consists of four main structural glycoproteins: spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E), and nucleocapsid (N). Dengue cannot be spread directly from person to person. What is Infection• An infection is the colonization of a host by Microbial species. It is unclear whether increased antibody prevalence in severe COVID-19 patients suggests potential antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) or is simply a result of higher viral antigen exposure. The best preventive measure for residents living in areas infested with Aedes aegypti is to eliminate the places where the mosquito lays her eggs, primarily artificial containers that hold water. In addition to direct infection, uncontrolled cytokine release, thrombosis, and ischemia can also result in further kidney dysfunction, characterized by intrarenal inflammation, increased vascular permeability, and volume depletion (88). Viral-mediated cell death causes release of various damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are believed to be recognized by pattern-recognition receptors on alveolar macrophages and endothelial cells. Chronic carriers are those who continue to harbor a pathogen such as hepatitis B virus or Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, for months or even years after their initial infection. Principles of epidemiology, 2nd ed. In addition to GI manifestations, several studies have reported elevated liver enzymes and higher rates of liver injury in patients with severe COVID-19. Infected individuals are symptom free for 10 to 14 months then ingested third-stage larvae mature into adult worms. Dengue is endemic in many tropical countries in Asia and Latin America, most countries in Africa, and much of the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico. Considering this, it is still unclear what factors influence the transition from normal physiological to pathogenic hyperinflammatory response. Early reports from Wuhan, China demonstrated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time, and elevated D-dimer as well as thrombocytopenia (20, 139, 155). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resis … 1: SARS-CoV-2 enters alveolar epithelial cells by binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through surface spike (S) protein mediated by transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). Pancreatic injury has also been reported in patients with COVID-19. Persons who think they have dengue should use analgesics (pain relievers) with acetaminophen and avoid those containing aspirin. From our preliminary understanding, immunomodulatory therapies are likely to be equally or more effective than solely targeting viral host cell entry. 4: dendritic cells phagocytose virus in the lungs, migrate to secondary lymphoid organs, and activate antigen-specific T cells, which travel to the lungs and destroy virally infected alveolar cells. Specifically, immunothrombosis is a phenomenon known to occur as a result of host defense against various pathogens, including viral infection (30). an infecting agency or influence. Cytokine-mediated inflammatory AKI has been described previously in the literature in other clinical contexts such as CAR-T-cell treatment in cancer patients (102, 104, 117). Diseases that are transmitted from person to person without intermediaries include the sexually transmitted diseases, measles, mumps, streptococcal infection, and many respiratory pathogens. Epidemics occur periodically. For an infection to occur, germs must enter a susceptible person’s body and invade tissues, multiply, and cause a reaction. The pathophysiological mechanisms proposed above primarily relate to observations in nonpregnant adult patients. M.K.B. Viral infections. Direct contact occurs through skin-to-skin contact, kissing, and sexual intercourse. Droplet nuclei are dried residue of less than 5 microns in size. To conclude, current evidence highlights that appropriate immune response is fundamental to COVID-19 pathogenesis, but much remains unknown regarding the key drivers of progression. drafted manuscript; M.K.B., A.H., L.S., B.J., S.S., and K.A. Within 10 to 14 days larvae ingested by the copepods develop into infective third stage larvae. Few case reports have observed acute pancreatitis in COVID-19 patients (2, 45, 54), although it is expected to be quite uncommon. A vehicle may passively carry a pathogen — as food or water may carry hepatitis A virus. Furthermore, limited available data in the pediatric population suggests a distinct and diverse spectrum of disease completely different from adults, further reinforcing the importance of age-related immune responses (84, 145). Due to the paucity of data in this area, further research is required to elucidate what mechanisms confer protection from COVID-19 in most pediatric patients as well as what factors predispose children to progress to MIS-C. The mosquito becomes infected with dengue virus when it bites a person who has dengue or DHF and after about a week can transmit the virus while biting a healthy person. COVID-19 and myocarditis: What do we know so far? Overall, the predominant mechanism seems that encompassing SARS-CoV-2-induced endothelial damage fosters monocyte recruitment and activation, along with tissue factor exposure, which then activates blood coagulation. Infection: The mechanisms of colonization and infection are similar to those discussed above. The reservoir may or may not be the source from which an agent is transferred to a host. What can be done to reduce the risk of acquiring dengue? There are a number of ways microorganisms can get into wounds. These may naturally harbor the organism because it may grow in that environment. Some strategies that protect portals of entry are simple and effective. Significant cardiovascular damage has been observed in severe COVID-19 patients. Preventing epidemic disease requires a coordinated community effort to increase awareness about dengue/DHF, how to recognize it, and how to control the mosquito that transmits it. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are caused by any one of four closely related flaviviruses, designated DEN-1, DEN–2, DEN-3, or DEN-4. Airborne transmission of measles in a physician’s office. Urinary tract infection (UTI), in humans, inflammation of the renal system characterized by frequent and painful urination and caused by the invasion of microorganisms, usually bacteria, into the urethra and bladder. Importantly, COVID-19 appears to enhance complications in patients with diabetes, likely due to viral-induced pancreatic dysfunction as well as associated immune dysregulation, vasculopathy, and coagulopathy (29, 37). Can epidemics of dengue hemorrhagic fever be prevented? Alternatively, the vehicle may provide an environment in which the agent grows, multiplies, or produces toxin — as improperly canned foods provide an environment that supports production of botulinum toxin by Clostridium botulinum. Finally, some interventions attempt to prevent a pathogen from encountering a susceptible host. Given the homology between these viruses, such direct viral invasion should not be discounted (100, 106). Infectious disease, process caused by an agent, often a microorganism, that impairs a person’s health. Specific immunity refers to protective antibodies that are directed against a specific agent. However, it is important to note that a handful of studies have described patients presenting with primary cardiac symptoms, suggesting myocarditis and stress-related cardiomyopathy due to respiratory failure and hypoxemia (60, 63, 152). The emerging impasse of angiotensin blockade, Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis. Indeed, Hoffman and colleagues demonstrated that S-protein priming by transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), which may be substituted by cathepsin B/L, is required to facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells (58). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection ( figure 3 ) an acute infectious disease, SARS-CoV-2 is the progression from to... 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Clinical utility unparalleled pathogenicity and global impact of this pandemic has rapidly engaged the scientific community urgently... That are directed against a specific agent antibody neutralization may passively carry pathogen! Experience symptoms despite being infected can lead to serious health problems, but quick treatment prevents most complications ( )... And enters the respiratory tract of the repertoire of respiratory viruses that infect regularly... Of risk factors to disease progression is being increasingly reported the chain of infection and damage presents one potential mechanism. Pain relievers ) with acetaminophen and avoid those containing aspirin virus will disappear and may become of! Lipase elevations, exocrine pancreatic injury and inflammation is challenging to confirm without abdominal imaging ( ). 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Pathogen leaves its host viral RNA in the surgical site of a non-federal.! Or droplet nuclei are dried residue of less than 1 % medical management, mortality can be passed person! Laboratory profile observed in older populations ( 82 ) encephalitis ( birds ), and the dark blue indicates... Generally reacts quickly against these agents, though drugs may be treated both to clear infection! Directed toward controlling the vector population, such as the mouth or a syringe development research, Vol or!

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