### TED Theater, Soho, New York

Tuesday, September 24, 2019
New York, NY

## The Event

As part of Global Goals Week, the Skoll Foundation and the United Nations Foundation are pleased to present We the Future: Accelerating Sustainable Development Solutions on September 21, 2017 at TED Theater in New York.
The Sustainable Development Goals, created in partnership with individuals around the world and adopted by world leaders at the United Nations, present a bold vision for the future: a world without poverty or hunger, in which all people have access to healthcare, education and economic opportunity, and where thriving ecosystems are protected. The 17 goals are integrated and interdependent, spanning economic, social, and environmental imperatives.
Incremental change will not manifest this new world by 2030. Such a shift requires deep, systemic change. As global leaders gather for the 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly in September, this is the moment to come together to share models that are transforming the way we approach the goals and equipping local and global leaders across sectors to accelerate achievement of the SDGs.

Together with innovators from around the globe, we will showcase and discuss bold models of systemic change that have been proven and applied on a local, regional, and global scale. A curated audience of social entrepreneurs, corporate pioneers, government innovators, artistic geniuses, and others will explore how we can learn from, strengthen, and scale the approaches that are working to create a world of sustainable peace and prosperity.

Meet the

# Speakers

Click on photo to read each speaker bio.

Amina

### Mohammed

Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations

Astro

### Teller

Captain of Moonshots, X

Catherine

### Cheney

West Coast Correspondent, Devex

Chris

Debbie

### Aung Din

Co-founder of Proximity Designs

Dolores

### Dickson

Regional Executive Director, Camfed West Africa

Emmanuel

### Jal

Musician, Actor, Author, Campaigner

Ernesto

### Zedillo

Member of The Elders, Former President of Mexico

Georgie

### Benardete

Co-Founder and CEO, Align17

Gillian

### Caldwell

CEO, Global Witness

Governor Jerry

### Brown

State of California

Her Majesty Queen Rania

Jordan

Jake

### Wood

Co-founder and CEO, Team Rubicon

Jessica

### Mack

Senior Director for Advocacy and Communications, Global Health Corps

Josh

### Nesbit

CEO, Medic Mobile

Julie

### Hanna

Executive Chair of the Board, Kiva

Kate Lloyd

### Morgan

Producer, Shamba Chef; Co-Founder, Mediae

Kathy

### Calvin

President & CEO, UN Foundation

Mary

### Robinson

Member of The Elders, former President of Ireland, former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights

Maya

### Chorengel

Senior Partner, Impact, The Rise Fund

Dr. Mehmood

### Khan

Vice Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer, PepsiCo

Michael

### Green

CEO, Social Progress Imperative

### Yunus

Nobel Prize Laureate; Co-Founder, YSB Global Initiatives

Dr. Orode

### Doherty

Country Director, Africare Nigeria

### Muthiah

CEO, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves

Rocky

### Dawuni

GRAMMY Nominated Musician & Activist, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves & Rocky Dawuni Foundation

Safeena

### Husain

Founder & Executive Director, Educate Girls

Sally

### Osberg

President and CEO, Skoll Foundation

Shamil

### Idriss

President and CEO, Search for Common Ground

Main venue

### TED Theater

Soho, New York

330 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10013

#### Email

wtfuture@skoll.org

Due to limited space, this event is by invitation only.

## quicksort almost sorted

December 1, 2020 by 0

uneven division. The idea 7 1 3 9 8 2 7 5 Sample Output. In particular, we can attempt to alleviate some of the potential This is the currently selected item. It's important to remember that quicksort works on the entire list and sorts it in place. The result is $$n\log n$$. Some observations: Insertion sort is the clear winner on this initial condition. Quicksort is a naturally recursive algorithm - divide the input array into smaller arrays, move the elements to the proper side of the pivot, and repeat. Figure 12: The First Pivot Value for a Quick Sort, Figure 13: Finding the Split Point for 54, Figure 14: Completing the Partition Process to Find the Split Point for 54. Quicksort is a representative of three types of sorting algorithms: divide and conquer, in-place, and unstable. This leads to Quicksort, ironically, performing very badly on already sorted (or almost sorted) arrays. The goal 2. âPartitionâ the array into 3 parts: 2.1. Medium #40 Combination Sum II. However, despite all this, Quicksort's average time complexity of O(n*logn) and its relatively low space-usage and simple implementation, make it a very efficient and popular algorithm. The idea of the algorithm is quite simple and once you realize it, you can write quicksort as fast as bubble sort. point. Sort a nearly sorted (or K sorted) array Last Updated: 24-12-2019 Given an array of n elements, where each element is at most k away from its target position, devise an algorithm that sorts in O (n log k) time. However, finding the median of the (sub)array is a redundant operation, because most of the choices for pivot will be "good". There are many types of sorting algorithm present with time complexities O(N²), O(N*logN) and even O(N). You can see that the object comparison is provided to the quick_sort call via a lambda, which does the actual comparison of the age property: By implementing the algorithm in this way, it can be used with any custom object we choose, just as long as we provide an appropriate comparison function. Quick Sort amazed me. The position of rightmark is now the split point. Well it is an O(n*log(n)) algorithm on an average case and an O(n 2) algorithm in the worst case scenario. This is how most people choose to implement Quicksort and, since it's simple and this way of choosing the pivot is a very efficient operation (and we'll need to do it repeatedly), this is exactly what we will do. No spam ever. Shell sort is fast because it is based on insertion sort. It will find the split point and 1. can be invoked recursively on the two halves. Unsubscribe at any time. 2) Array is already sorted in reverse order. This is something that becomes important when you sort objects instead of primitive types. In computer science, a sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order.The most frequently used orders are numerical order and lexicographical order.Efficient sorting is important for optimizing the efficiency of other algorithms (such as search and merge algorithms) that require input data to be in sorted lists. Instead of doing a direct comparison with the <= or >= operators, we instead call the function to tell is which Person is higher in age: And now, let's sort a collection of these objects. It's recommended to use a simple, non-recursive algorithm for sorting small arrays. This is because the whole process depends on how we choose the pivot. 1 Explanation Insertion Sort will take 9 "shifts" to sort the array. If you need any help - post it in the comments :), By Quicksort is a fast sorting algorithm, which is used not only for educational purposes, but widely applied in practice. when comparing with quicksort, it has two advantages: It is unbelievably fast for nearly sorted data sequence (including reverse sorted data); The worst case is still O(N*LOG(N)). The instability of the algorithm is also something that can be a deal breaker when using custom objects. In early versions of Quick Sort where leftmost (or rightmost) element is chosen as pivot, the worst occurs in following cases. When implemented well, it can be about two or three times faster than its main competitors, merge sort and heapsort. Challenge: Implement quicksort. pivot value is now in place (Figure 14). If it is greater, then it can be partitioned and recursively sorted. #33 Search in Rotated Sorted Array. It's a good example of an efficient sorting algorithm, with an average complexity of O(nlogn). Elements smaller than the pivot get moved to the left of the pivot, and elements larger than the pivot to the right of it. this happens, we will see that performance is diminished. will simply use the first item in the list. Quicksort will take 8 "swaps" to sort it, as shown in the diagram below. The problem of converting time-of-transaction ordering to check-number ordering is therefore the problem of sorting almost-sorted input. however, it is possible that the list may not be divided in half. Merge Sort is the only guaranteed O(n log n) even in the worst case. The pivot 2.2. On the average, it has O(n log n) complexity, making quicksort suitable for sorting big data volumes. pivot value selection as an exercise. Unfortunately, in the worst case, the split points may not be in the 35% off this week only! Although there are many different ways to choose the pivot value, we 19 would be a bad choice since it is almost the largest. split point. Developed by British computer scientist Tony Hoare in 1959 and published in 1961, it is still a commonly used algorithm for sorting. Partitioning begins by locating two position markersâletâs call them The graph speaks it all. As a trade-off, Quicksort is a representative of three types of sorting algorithms: divide and conquer, in-place, and unstable. But if the input array is sorted or almost sorted, using the first or last element as the pivot could lead to a worst-case scenario. Quick sort is the widely used sorting algorithm that makes n log n comparisons in average case for sorting of an array of n elements. Even something simple like insertion sort is more efficient on small arrays than Quicksort. The algorithm processes the array in the following way. either less than or greater than the pivot value. The algorithm then does the same thing for the 28,21,27,12,19 (left side) collection and the 44,78,87,66,31,76,58,88,83,97,41,99,44 (right side) collection. Selecting the pivot at random makes it more likely quicksort will select a value closer to the median and finish faster. 2.3. at the same time move other items to the appropriate side of the list, This will be particularly useful when the original list The input list is divided into two sub-lists by an element called pivot; one suâ¦ In order to find the split stop. When A quick sort first selects a value, which is called the pivot value. When we describe elements as "larger" or "smaller" than another element - it doesn't necessarily mean larger or smaller integers, we can sort by any property we choose. point, each of the n items needs to be checked against the pivot Originally Answered: what will be the complexity of quick sort if array is already sorted? Challenge: Implement partition. Fun fact: Dual-pivot Quicksort, along with Insertion Sort for smaller arrays was used in Java 7's sorting implementation. Quicksort is a popular sorting algorithm and is often used, right alongside Merge Sort. Very fast on \random" data, but unsuitable for mission-critical applications due â¦ Didnât you get amazed?! We then recursively go through the left and right side of the pivot. Another option would be to allow the caller to supply a method to our algorithm which would then be used to perform the actual comparison of the objects. Part of its popularity also derives from the ease of implementation. The goal is to move the elements around so that all elements smaller than the pivot are to its left, and all larger elements are to its right. partitioned and recursively sorted. Also note that it works best when the file(/numbers) is already almost sorted. Easy #39 Combination Sum. 35% off this week only! Created using Runestone 5.4.0. Divide â¦ Given that Quicksort sorts "halves" of a given array independently, it's very convenient for parallelization. items in the list (positions 1 and 8 in Figure 13). If the length of the list is less than or equal to one, it is already sorted. Q-4: Given the following list of numbers [1, 20, 11, 5, 2, 9, 16, 14, 13, 19] what would be the first pivot value using the median of 3 method? Quicksort 4. function, quickSortHelper. Keep in mind however that the algorithm isn't stable. value. Unlike mergesort, subarrays for sorting and merging are formed dynamically, depending on the input, rather than are predetermined. To analyze the quickSort function, note that for a list of length If we have a custom class Person, and each person has a name and age, we can sort by name (lexicographically) or by age (ascending or descending). Set the first index of the array to left and loc variable. middle and can be very skewed to the left or the right, leaving a very For example, imagine you have several Person objects that have the same age, i.e. Quicksort uses a divide-and-conquer strategy like merge sort. For a sorted array if the pivot is largest or smallest element in the list, here that will be the first element or the last element in the list then the complexity will be quadratic. sort with all of the overhead that recursion requires. Quicksort L7.5 sorted with a few exceptions)! The three numbers used in selecting the pivot are 1, 9, 19. 1 is not the median, and would be a very bad choice for the pivot since it is the smallest number in the list. There are many different versions of quickSort that pick pivot in different ways â¦ More on Quick Sort for additional memory as in the merge sort process. Itâs still possible that we could randomly pick The match..with is sort of like a switch/case statement. It's important to remember that Quicksort isn't a stable algorithm. Output one integer , where (insertion sort shifts) - (quicksort swaps) Constraints. (Quick sortâs worst case occurs when the numbers are already sorted!!) Hard #38 Count and Say. quickSortHelper begins with the same Figure 13: Finding the Split Point for 54Â¶. This is a pretty basic class with only two properties, name and age. Let's start off with the partition() function: And finally, let's implement the quick_sort() function: With both of them implemented, we can run quick_sort() on a simple array: Since the algorithm is unstable, there's no guarantee that these two 44's were in this order to each other. The most straight-forward approach is to simply choose the first (or last) element. It's a good example of an efficient sorting algorithm, with an average complexity of O(nlogn). Figure 12: The First Pivot Value for a Quick SortÂ¶. Now we can of size $$n-2$$, and so on. A stable sorting algorithm is an algorithm where the elements with the same values appear in the same order in the sorted output as they appear in the input list. The list can now be divided at the split point and the quick sort equal to one, it is already sorted. It has an averageO(n log n)complexity and itâs one of the most used sorting algorithms, especially for big data volumes. quickSortHelper begins with the same base case as the merge sort. In this case, sorting a list of n items divides into We can have a separate thread that sorts each "half" of the array, and we could ideally halve the time needed to sort it. partition process will happen next. Part of its popularity also derives from the ease of implementation. as the merge sort, while not using additional storage. Almost all the work: in the division into subproblems. Olivera PopoviÄ, Matplotlib Bar Plot - Tutorial and Examples, Seaborn Distribution/Histogram Plot - Tutorial and Examples, Now we search for a value larger than the, We've got no more use of this pivot so the only thing left to do is to swap, When we first call the algorithm, we consider all of the elements - from indexes, Improve your skills by solving one coding problem every day, Get the solutions the next morning via email. We then decrement rightmark until we Like Merge Sort, QuickSort is a Divide and Conquer algorithm. As you can see, we have achieved that all values smaller than 29 are now to the left of 29, and all values larger than 29 are to the right. sorting a list of 0 items and a list of $$n-1$$ items. The quick sort uses divide and conquer to gain the same advantages We want to use age as our sorting key, which we'll do by providing a custom lambda function to the sorting algorithm. Quick sort is a highly efficient sorting algorithm and is based on partitioning of array of data into smaller arrays. base case as the merge sort. Performance of Quicksort Quick sort vs Merge sort Both are comparison-based sorts. Q-3: Given the following list of numbers [14, 17, 13, 15, 19, 10, 3, 16, 9, 12] which answer shows the contents of the list after the second partitioning according to the quicksort algorithm? of 54. Hey guys, I want to point out that I don't have any social media to avoid mistakes. Since we have looked at this example a few times already, we know that As far as I know, choosing the median as pivot shrinks runtime to O(n log n), not to O(n). However, Quicksort can have a very deep recursive call stack if we are particularly unlucky in our choice of a pivot, and parallelization isn't as efficient as it is with Merge Sort. Well, there is no fastest sorting algorithm. Medium #41 First Missing Positive. The optimal cut-off for switching from Quicksort to Insertion sort is taken as 10 in above program. As we have previously mentioned, the efficiency of Quicksort depends highly on the choice of pivot - it can "make or break" the algorithm's time (and stack space) complexity. for an uneven division by using a technique called median of three. Medium #37 Sudoku Solver. Now pick the median value, in our case 54, and use it for the pivot We will use simple integers in the first part of this article, but we'll give an example of how to change this algorithm to sort objects of a custom class. Bubble sort is fast, but insertion sort has lower overhead. The quickSort function shown in ActiveCode 1 invokes a recursive function, quickSortHelper. Merge sort simply divides the list into two (almost) equal parts, but does some extra work before merging the parts. Figure 14: Completing the Partition Process to Find the Split Point for 54Â¶. 1) Array is already sorted in same order. Email. Using the array shown below, we've chosen the first element as the pivot (29), and the pointer to the smaller elements (called "low") starts right after, and the pointer to the larger elements (called "high") starts at the end. The basic version of the algorithm does the following: Divide the collection in two (roughly) equal parts by taking a pseudo-random element and using it as a pivot. Quick sort. Although the worst case time complexity of QuickSort is O(n 2) which is more than many other sorting algorithms like Merge Sort and Heap Sort, QuickSort is faster in practice, because its inner loop can be efficiently implemented on most architectures, and in most real-world data. We leave the implementation of this 1. value (of course, that was the pivot value we used originally). If you were to use Quicksort on a collection that contains both Dave and Mike, sorted by age, there is no guarantee that Dave will come before Mike every time you run the algorithm, and vice versa. although 16 would be the median of 1, 16, 19 the middle is at len(list) // 2. the three numbers used in selecting the pivot are 1, 9, 19. Merge sort, heap sort, and quick sort do not adapt to nearly sorted â¦ The first partitioning works on the entire list, and the second partitioning works on the left partition not the right. Insertion sort takes linear time when input array is sorted or almost sorted (maximum 1 or 2 elements are misplaced). In addition, all the Quick sort can be O(n log n), but if the pivot points are not well chosen and the list is just so, it can be O(n^2). Each sorting algorithm can be fastest for certain scenarios. However, most of the time only two pivots are used, not more. Medium #34 Find First and Last Position of Element in Sorted Array. Dave aged 21 and Mike aged 21. As intuitive as this process may seem, it's very hard to do. Then leftmark and rightmarkâat the beginning and end of the remaining Quicksort is a sorting algorithm, which is leveraging the divide-and-conquer principle. value. Remember quicksort works on the entire list and sorts it in place. So ideally we could check whether our subarray has only a small number of elements (most recommendations say about 10 or less), and if so, we'd sort it with Insertion Sort instead. It works by selecting a 'pivot' element from the array and partitioning the other â¦ Let's go through how a few recursive calls would look: That being said, we'll utilize two functions - partition() and quick_sort(). split point, will be used to divide the list for subsequent calls to Overview of quicksort. is that in the case where the first item in the list does not belong the quick sort. discovered two items that are out of place with respect to the eventual Medium #35 Search Insert Position. This process is continued until the low and high pointers finally meet in a single element: 29 | 21,27,12,19,28 (low/high),44,78,87,66,31,76,58,88,83,97,41,99,44, 28,21,27,12,19,29,44,78,87,66,31,76,58,88,83,97,41,99,44. is to assist with splitting the list. Quicksort is an efficient sorting algorithm. sorting a list of $$n-1$$ divides into a list of size 0 and a list A step by step look at what we're planning to do will help illustrate the process. Complexity Analysis of Quick Sort. will again be $$\log n$$ divisions. It picks an element as pivot and partitions the given array around the picked pivot. Pick a âpivotâ element. implements the process described earlier. Hard #42 Trapping Rain Water. 3) All elements are same (special case of case 1 and 2) 29 | 99 (low),27,41,66,28,44,78,87,19,31,76,58,88,83,97,12,21,44 (high), 29 | 99 (low),27,41,66,28,44,78,87,19,31,76,58,88,83,97,12,21 (high),44, 29 | 21 (low),27,41,66,28,44,78,87,19,31,76,58,88,83,97,12,99 (high),44. Quicksort is a divide-and-conquer algorithm. But first, let's see how this provided function is used within the algorithm. Think about it for a moment - how would you choose an adequate pivot for your array? Linear-time partitioning. value can be exchanged with the contents of the split point and the Uniform random 2. The partitioned subsets may or may not be equal in size. greater than the pivot value. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. items to the left of the split point are less than the pivot value, and We begin by incrementing leftmark until we locate a value that is 3. Mergesort. Quick Sort. We mentioned earlier that there are different ways to choose the pivot Argue that the procedure $\text{INSERTION-SORT}$ would tend to beat the procedure $\text{QUICKSORT}$ on this problem. In our example, those are 54, 77, and 20. Quicksort. ready sorted, quicksort will take O(n2) steps (and similarly if it is âalmostâ LECTURE NOTES. Third part: all elements in this part is greater than or equal to the pivot. For example, let us consider k is 2, an element at index 7 in the sorted array, can be at indexes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 in the given array. âmiddleâ value. Q-5: Which of the following sort algorithms are guaranteed to be O(n log n) even in the worst case? The whole function is recursive â this is signaled to the compiler using the rec keyword in âlet rec quicksort list =â. Bubble sort 2. all the items to the right of the split point are greater than the pivot Sorting nearly sorted data is quite common in practice. If we pick the pivot randomly each time, the kind of array we get does not matter: the expected running time is always the same, namely O(nlog(n)). Analysis of quicksortâ¦ When the number of elements to be sorted in a partition is under 8 elements, just don't bother trying to recurse, but instead implement a hard-coded sort using just ifs and swaps (have a look at the fast_small_sort function in this code). Second part: the pivot itself (only one element!) toward the middle of the list, the median of three will choose a better exchange these two items and then repeat the process again. with respect to the pivot value while also converging on the split This algorithm follows divide and conquer approach. Learn Lambda, EC2, S3, SQS, and more! Figure 13 shows this process as we locate the position This process is repeated for the collection to the left of the pivot, as well as for the array of elements to the right of the pivot until the whole array is sorted. TimSort is highly optimization mergesort, it is stable and faster than old mergesort. The result is an $$O(n^{2})$$ This function will work on any list that has comparable items (which is almost all F# types, because they automatically have a default comparison function). Quicksort sorting technique is widely used in software applications. Under the following scenarios for input data: 1. Insertion sort 3. Overview of quicksort. In addition, there is no need A very Pythonic way would be to implement the comparison operators for a given class, which means that we wouldn't actually need to change the algorithm implementation since >, ==, <=, etc. The partition function The more sorted the array is, the less work insertion sort will do. Quicksort is the fastest known comparison-based sort Quicksort will, more often than not, fail to divide the array into equal parts. It all depends on pivot selection. With over 275+ pages, you'll learn the ins and outs of visualizing data in Python with popular libraries like Matplotlib, Seaborn, Bokeh, and more. QuickSort can be implemented in different ways by changing the choice of pivot, so that the worst case rarely occurs for â¦ Quick sort. Figure 12 shows that 54 will serve as our first pivot value. All other sorting algorithms mentioned above will take more than lienear time in â¦ If it is greater, then it can be Now that we have chosen a pivot - what do we do with it? Easy #36 Valid Sudoku. 9 is the median. The role of the pivot value The cost is that merge sort uses more memory. Almost sorted (90% sorted â 1 in 10 is out of place) 3. Now, the principle of the quicksort algorithm is this: 1. Maybe there were originally switched - though this doesn't mean much in an integer array. Then, apply the quicksort algorithm to the first and the third part.